Training on planting, harvesting, saffron harvesting
Saffron planting stage:
Since the onion of saffron after 7-10 years of seed production is the first product (in the year recommended by the experts, the age of the economy is 8 years), so the planting operation is exclusively first, and in the following years, only the operation Steps have been taken and harvesting is carried out in Saffron farms; therefore, the stage of planting of Baerafan is of particular importance.
1- Land supply:
A suitable soil for saffron should not be too sandy or too heavy. Specifications and fertility rates can be identified by performing soil tests. However, lemony soils are suitable for the construction of saffron farms. Saffron performs land preparation operations starting from early spring in the following order.
In the spring after the rainy rains and the sagging of the land, the field is plowed at a depth of 25 to 30 centimeters, which is also beneficial for the field to fight against weeds. After the operation, they leave the land until early summer to stay out for some time. At about the time of the cultivation, approximately 80 to 100 tons per hectare of cow's cattle are completely fermented and free of weed seeds are mixed with deep soil plowing, then immediately smoothly and flatly to prevent the breakdown of the sun. Also, based on the soil test, phosphate fertilizers and potassium fertilizers can be used in a certain amount of soil. In the next step, after the leveling and determining the type of cultivation, hill or stacking method, the land is ready for cultivation of saffron.
2- Selection of onion for planting:
The best onions can be obtained from fields of 4 to 5 years old. After cutting the onions from the ground, they should be graded. So that those weighing more than 8 grams should be planted in a new farm, and smaller and smaller onions should be planted in a small, well-strengthened, seedbed area and grown with more irrigation and care, and next to the farm. Main transfer.
* To ensure that there are no earthworms or fungal contamination, disinfect bulbs before planting with mink and fungicides.
* Due to the warmth of the environment and soil in the summer, there is no need to remove all onions or to separate the button under the onion.
3- Planting time:
Saffron onion will sleep from mid-May after falling asleep and drying leaves, and they will be full-fledged until the early July. Therefore, during this period, when the air is not so warmed up, it is best to cut the onions from the previous field and transfer them and plant them in a new farm. The displacement of onions in August and September has a damning effect, and this is one of the reasons for the low yield of the first year in saffron farms of the same year. Because the transfer in August and August is damaging to the flow of flowers in the onion bud, and the heat of air and soil in these two months is harmful to the onion health.
The better the distance between the onions from the ground and the planting of the new farm is shorter. Because the bulbs lose a lot of moisture after leaving the soil. So avoid storing onions or keeping them long in local storage.
4. How to plant:
The cultivation can be done by car in a row or by hand and by hand. But what matters is that the rows are straight and spaced apart equally. The usual spacing is between 25 to 30 cm in hail, and the depth of the crop is at least 20 to 25 centimeters. While this distance and depth is not possible with the tractor. Unless you increase the spacing of the rows by 40 to 45 centimeters, as a result of reduced seeding and low farm yields.
A very important issue to consider when planting bulbs is that it should be avoided to cultivate a hole in which a few coarse bulbs are placed together and in the same place in the hole. Cultivation can be done in this case. The bulbs are each one and 5 to 7 cm apart from each other, or in the form of zigzag and stems, upwards at the bottom of the groove and covered with soil at a height of 5 to 10 cm.
In cornice cultivation, each onion alone will have enough space and food, and for the next several years it will produce large onions, resulting in increased production in the second and third years. But in the cultivation of a hole, onions have been gaining food since the very first year, and later they become coarse, and since the third year, the farm has reached a significant yield.
5- Planting density and depth:
As indicated in the hull and manual culture method, if the distance between the cultivars is 25 cm and the distance between bulbs on a row of 8 cm, 50 m2 of onions are planted per square meter, which, if consumed above 8 g onions, for each A hectare of 4 to 5 tons of onions is required, that is, about 500 thousand bulbs per hectare. Now, if we only consider one flower per onion, in the first year, at least 5.2 kg of dry saffron per hectare will be achieved, and the product of the following years will also be upward.
The planting depth is 20 to 25 cm, so the farm is less damaged by summer heat and winter frost and drought damage.
Renew the farm before the bulbs fall in the effects of long shelf life.
Step was saffron:
A saffron is a perennial herb which after planting produces about 7 to 10 consecutive years. Therefore, operations were of particular importance in saffron farms.
In different locations, depending on the weather conditions of the region, from the beginning of October to the first december of the year the irrigation of saffron begins. Due to the fact that the irrigation operation stimulates the plant and the plant wakes the saffron, the first water should be done very carefully and sensitively so that the harvest of saffron is not encountered. Usually saffron fields are irrigated 5 times a year.
First water (load of water): In cold regions, early October, a crackdown occurs after this irrigation, and the flowers are plotted 3 weeks later.
Second water (Zach water): Usually occurs 40 days after the first irrigation. The irrigation requirement is that before it we must spread about 100 kg of urea fertilizer per hectare to grow vegetative growth on the farm and then irrigate it.
The two above-mentioned irrigation is very important in the development of roots of saffron onions and the feeding of them to the plant growth and development of the onion.
Third water: In the winter, weeds are weed on the field. So in early March, the third irrigation will be done, which will make the weeding operation easier. That's why weeding is known as weeding.
Fourth water: this water, which is given until the end of March, is important for maintaining the moisture of onions in the soil and preserves the coarse onion of the girl. In the wet years, and in cold places, the same four water is enough.
Fifth Water (Yellow Water): This water, which occurs before saffron leaves yellow, is the latest irrigation of saffron and usually occurs in April.
Due to water constraints, farmers will refrain from expanding the cultivated area that causes the plant to thirst and thus reduce its yield.
Saffron workers should not overlook the importance of irrigation in Esfand and have no significant impact on the volatility of onions in March and March.
Saffron is a delicious plant, and it consumes a small amount of fertilizers. Therefore, farmers who use a large amount of chemical fertilizers, especially phosphate fertilizers, poison their soil and fertilize it. The soil degradation in the laboratory will illuminate the way for proper fertilization.
In Iran, depending on the nature of the land and the habits of farmers, 20 to 80 tons of rotten cow manure per hectare are consumed. Increasing the yield of saffron plant in relation to the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio shows a very positive reaction. Therefore, care should be taken in nitrogen and organic fertilizers. Because excessive consumption of nitrogen fertilizers disrupts the ratio of potassium to soil nitrogen and reduces the yield of saffron. Calcium soils are very suitable for growing saffron and livestock manure is consumed due to high potassium to meet the needs of this plant. Also, very fertile soils are not suitable for growing saffron cultivars.
The use of animal manure also has other benefits:
1) The resistance of the saffron plant to frost on the onions is much higher in the winter.
2) Animal manure keeps soil moisture; thus, the plant resists better drought.
3) Onion is damaged by the heat of the summer under the soil.
Farm your saffron only with animal manure. In the case of nitrogen fertilizer, note that if less than 100 kg / ha of urea is consumed, the bulbs of the onions are reduced and, instead, their fertility increases.
Do not overlook the full fertilizer (nitrogen, phosphorus and potash) in late February or early March.
Research has shown that after February, when saffron bulbs lose their roots, one-time use of soluble fertilizers would be very beneficial. This fertilizer can be absorbed by saffron leaves and reciprocates onions, and will make them greasy, and next year it will increase up to 30% of the yield.
It was a breakdown of the important operations of the stage and it is necessary to break down after irrigation and as soon as the cow lands the farm in such a way that the bulbs are not damaged. The crack depth should not be greater than 5 to 8 cm.
Cracking makes the flowers easy to get out of the soil and mix animal manure with the surface layer of the soil. If a destructive breakdown is carried out, the bud sprouts its flowers to the surface of the soil and the breakdown causes them to be cut off.
Weeding and Weed Control:
By controlling the plant, the weeds reduce the yield by absorbing water, food and sunlight. There are many ways to eliminate weeds.
But usually a combination of two or more methods will result in a more satisfactory result. With weeds, we fight against mechanical, agronomic, chemical and biological methods. But in saffron cultivation a mechanical method is especially common in weeding, and the chemical method is practical due to summer saffron's sleep with low risk pesticides.
Considering that the saffron plant is weak, short and delicate, weeding is very important. Because if the cultivated land does not wipe out the weeds, after a while they will cover the entire field and their destruction will be hardly possible. So, in the spring and summer of summer 5, when saffron bulbs leave their summer rest period, we can easily remove weeds by using hand tools and machines. Farmers are reluctant to take heavy carriages into the ground, because they cause soil damage.
The first weed is taken after harvesting and the second irrigation, so that the weeds are eliminated and the distance between the rows of planting, which is compressed by the impact of the people of the flowering plant, is grooved and soft. The second weed is done, if necessary, at intervals of one month from the weed first to prevent the establishment of winter weeds and the subsequent weeding of the need for spring and summer.
5- Saffron pests:
Saffron onion: Damage to this mite is directly fed from onions and is revealed by the production of wounds on onions. Infected mice are black and rotten spots. The leaves of the plants infected with this pest are thinner and thinner than usual. Also, the flowers of saffron in infected plants are smaller and more delicate and sometimes lacking in stigmas or with weak stigmas.
Depth of sowing depends on the soil texture of 15 to 20 centimeters.
Use healthy bulbs without dark spots for planting.
Before planting onions, be sure to disinfect the fungicide and mite.
Spread every two years, agronomy soils at a height of 1 to 2 cm throughout the summer, to keep the depth of planting of the bulbs constant.
Reduce the life of the farms.
Damage to rodents: Among rodents, rabbits and all kinds of mice are the enemies of saffron. Each of these, in a special way, destroys saffron shrubs.
Rabbit: Because in winter, saffron is one of the only significant herbs, saffron is the green grass, rabbits are keen on eating this greener vegetable for hunger. Therefore, rabbit damage this season from time to time causes the destruction of saffron farm. To fight this beast, it is used to trap, seize the land and poisonous baits.
Mice: This creature is interested in saffron onions, and for this reason it quickly destroys the farm. Rats are eliminated by appropriate methods recommended by competent authorities.
6- Saffron diseases:
A. Saffron deterioration: This disease is caused by the onset of rhizoctonia and udalis. The fungus attacked the onion surface, forming red-billed red spots and gradually penetrating the onion. Infiltration of this fungus into onions causes its bulges to surface and leaves it rot and dry. It will also attack other products such as potatoes, sugar beets and alfalfa.
Nesting of onion saffron after plants The host of collecting and burning infected bulbs Disinfestation of land with 250 kg sulfur carbon dioxide per hectare Non-planting of saffron onion in infected areas for 6 to 8 years
B. Saffron black molluscs: This is a fungal infection called Fumaco. This fungus spreads over saffron leaves and comes down to saffron onion.
Collect and burn infected leaves and inflorescences
Disinfection of onions with appropriate toxins against fungal diseases before planting
C-Onion bullous disease: This condition produces rash on the onion surface. In this situation, onions are usually smaller than normal, and the plant itself is also shorter than normal.
Saffron harvesting stage:
Saffron harvesting is the most difficult and laborious and at the same time the most sensitive stage of saffron cultivation, which includes picking flowers and separating the sprouts from the flower. The flower life is 3 to 4 days, and if not timely, it will be lost. Also, if the flowers are exposed to hot weather, wind and sun for a long time, its color and aroma will be reduced and the quality of saffron will be reduced.
1- The way flowers are picked up:
The flowering period of the saffron farm is usually 15 to 25 days, and the amount of flowers increases from 7th to 10th day. The harvesting time is dependent on the climatic conditions and the time of the first irrigation, and early flowering, before dawn and sometimes in the evenings.
It is recommended to use wicker baskets and paper bags or cotton bags to prevent spoilage of the flowers, and the baskets are not too crowded. The flowers should be removed immediately after picking the spatula, because, as time passes, yellow pollen is placed on the spikes, and the stitches are severely tightened and pressed, thereby causing damage to the spines. And a decline in the value and market of saffron.
Recommendation: To preserve the quality of saffron paint, picking flowers early in the morning, in the form of a semi-open flower or bud, so that the stigmas are less damaged during the movement.
2- Separation of stomach:
After transferring the flowers from the field in the shortest possible time, the stomach must be separated from the other parts of the flower. Otherwise they will become unusable due to the rapid corrosivity of the flowers. The isolation site should be clean and hygienic, and people who carry out separation work should observe health issues. Separation is done in three ways:
First method: After splitting the flower, the twigs of the three branches of the other flower components are separated and arranged in a regular manner, and they are also dried. Saffron is prepared as saffron.
The second method:
After splitting the flower and separating the stigmas and cream, the stigma is cut off from the binding site and each one is collected and dried individually. Saffron saffron is called saffron.
In this method, usually three-branched claws with a portion of the cream are separated from other parts of the flower and dried out after irregularly placed in the dish. These saffron are called saffron saffron.
Each of these saffron may be grade one or two, high quality or poor, and none can be preferred to another. What is certain is the power of coloring and the quality of saffron bunch is far lower than other types of saffron. Also, due to the drying method, the cream has a higher moisture content with a dry lag and actually loses some of its coloring power during the drying process, so it has a lower quality.
3- Drying Saffron:
The correct drying method has a great impact on the quality and value of the finished product. Methods of drying include: traditional Iranian method, Spanish method and industrial methods.
The traditional method involves drying the saffron in a shade or warm and dry room for about 8 to 12 days. In this method, it is possible to grow and proliferate microorganisms, increase the pollution and also reduce the power of pigmentation due to the activity of enzymes, due to the long drying time.
In the Spanish method, saffron is placed on a silk mesh net at temperatures of about 50 to 60 ° C for 30 to 60 minutes indirectly. In this method, the color appears more or less than the traditional method of drying in the open air and the possibility of fungal contamination is limited.
In the industrial method, the drying systems used are several types.
Air-driven dryers: In this system, the hot air comes in direct contact with the product. The most important are tunnel dryers.
Conveyor dryers and vacuum cleaners are from other industrial dryers.
Some suggestions for saffron drying:
- Kutak drying time.
- Use uniform and indirect heat to dry the saffron.
- The final moisture content of saffron at the end of drying operations is not 10% higher.
- Avoid drying saffron on non-sanitary metal surfaces.
4- Packaging and maintenance of saffron:
After separation and drying, saffron is ready to be packaged and delivered. Saffron may be packed in glass containers, envelopes and polyethylene cans or laminated aluminum alloys. After packaging, the saffron should be placed inside the carton to prevent jamming, and placed in wooden or metal boxes when transporting. Also kept in a sanitary place, at a suitable temperature and humidity, away from light. The temperature of saffron storage should not exceed 20 ° C.